To make a model searchable, you’ll need to add it to the search index. All pages, images, and documents are indexed for you, so you can start searching them right away.
If you have created some extra fields in a subclass of Page or Image, you may want to add these new fields to the search index too so that a user’s search query will match their content. See Indexing extra fields for info on how to do this.
If you have a custom model that you would like to make searchable, see Indexing custom models.
Updating the index¶
If the search index is kept separate from the database (when using Elasticsearch for example), you need to keep them both in sync. There are two ways to do this: using the search signal handlers, or calling the
update_index command periodically. For the best speed and reliability, it’s best to use both if possible.
wagtailsearch provides some signal handlers which bind to the save/delete signals of all indexed models. This would automatically add and delete them from all backends you have registered in
WAGTAILSEARCH_BACKENDS. These signal handlers are automatically registered when the
wagtail.search app is loaded.
In some cases, you may not want your content to be automatically reindexed and instead rely on the
update_index command for indexing. If you need to disable these signal handlers, use one of the following methods:
Disabling auto-update signal handlers for a model¶
You can disable the signal handlers for an individual model by adding
search_auto_update = False as an attribute on the model class.
Disabling auto-update signal handlers for a search backend/whole site¶
You can disable the signal handlers for a whole search backend by setting the
AUTO_UPDATE setting on the backend to
If all search backends have
AUTO_UPDATE set to
False, the signal handlers will be completely disabled for the whole site.
For documentation on the
AUTO_UPDATE setting, see AUTO_UPDATE.
Wagtail also provides a command for rebuilding the index from scratch.
It is recommended to run this command once a week and at the following times:
whenever any pages have been created through a script (after an import, for example)
whenever any changes have been made to models or search configuration
The search may not return any results while this command is running, so avoid running it at peak times.
update_index command is also aliased as
wagtail_update_index, for use when another installed package (such as Haystack) provides a conflicting
update_index command. In this case, the other package’s entry in
INSTALLED_APPS should appear above
wagtail.search so that its
update_index command takes precedence over Wagtail’s.
Indexing extra fields¶
Fields must be explicitly added to the
search_fields property of your
Page-derived model, in order for you to be able to search/filter on them. This is done by overriding
search_fields to append a list of extra
FilterField objects to it.
This creates an
EventPage model with two fields:
description is indexed as a
date is indexed as a
from wagtail.search import index from django.utils import timezone class EventPage(Page): description = models.TextField() date = models.DateField() search_fields = Page.search_fields + [ # Inherit search_fields from Page index.SearchField('description'), index.FilterField('date'), ] # Get future events which contain the string "Christmas" in the title or description >>> EventPage.objects.filter(date__gt=timezone.now()).search("Christmas")
These are used for performing full-text searches on your models, usually for text fields.
boolean) - Setting this to true allows results to be matched on parts of words. For example, this is set on the title field by default, so a page titled
Hello World!will be found if the user only types
Helinto the search box.
int/float) - This allows you to set fields as being more important than others. Setting this to a high number on a field will cause pages with matches in that field to be ranked higher. By default, this is set to 2 on the Page title field and 1 on all other fields.
The PostgresSQL full-text search only supports four weight levels (A, B, C, D). When the database search backend
wagtail.search.backends.databaseis used on a PostgreSQL database, it will take all boost values in the project into consideration and group them into the four available weights.
This means that in this configuration there are effectively only four boost levels used for ranking the search results, even if more boost values have been used.
You can find out roughly which boost thresholds map to which weight in PostgreSQL by starting a new Django shell with
./manage.py shelland inspecting
wagtail.search.backends.database.postgres.weights.BOOST_WEIGHTS. You should see something like
[(10.0, 'A'), (7.166666666666666, 'B'), (4.333333333333333, 'C'), (1.5, 'D')]. Boost values above each threshold will be treated with the respective weight.
dict) - This field is to allow the developer to set or override any setting on the field in the Elasticsearch mapping. Use this if you want to make use of any Elasticsearch features that are not yet supported in Wagtail.
These are used for autocomplete queries that match partial words. For example, a page titled
Hello World! will be found if the user only types
Hel into the search box.
This takes the exact same options as
index.SearchField (with the exception of
partial_match, which has no effect).
index.AutocompleteField should only be used on fields that are displayed in the search results. This allows users to see any words that were partial-matched.
These are added to the search index but are not used for full-text searches. Instead, they allow you to run filters on your search results.
Indexing callables and other attributes¶
Search/filter fields do not need to be Django model fields. They can also be any method or attribute on your model class.
One use for this is indexing the
get_*_display methods Django creates automatically for fields with choices.
from wagtail.search import index class EventPage(Page): IS_PRIVATE_CHOICES = ( (False, "Public"), (True, "Private"), ) is_private = models.BooleanField(choices=IS_PRIVATE_CHOICES) search_fields = Page.search_fields + [ # Index the human-readable string for searching. index.SearchField('get_is_private_display'), # Index the boolean value for filtering. index.FilterField('is_private'), ]
Callables also provide a way to index fields from related models. In the example from Inline Panels and Model Clusters, to index each BookPage by the titles of its related_links:
class BookPage(Page): # ... def get_related_link_titles(self): # Get list of titles and concatenate them return '\n'.join(self.related_links.all().values_list('name', flat=True)) search_fields = Page.search_fields + [ # ... index.SearchField('get_related_link_titles'), ]
Indexing custom models¶
Any Django model can be indexed and searched.
To do this, inherit from
index.Indexed and add some
search_fields to the model.
from wagtail.search import index class Book(index.Indexed, models.Model): title = models.CharField(max_length=255) genre = models.CharField(max_length=255, choices=GENRE_CHOICES) author = models.ForeignKey(Author, on_delete=models.CASCADE) published_date = models.DateTimeField() search_fields = [ index.SearchField('title', partial_match=True, boost=10), index.SearchField('get_genre_display'), index.FilterField('genre'), index.FilterField('author'), index.FilterField('published_date'), ] # As this model doesn't have a search method in its QuerySet, we have to call search directly on the backend >>> from wagtail.search.backends import get_search_backend >>> s = get_search_backend() # Run a search for a book by Roald Dahl >>> roald_dahl = Author.objects.get(name="Roald Dahl") >>> s.search("chocolate factory", Book.objects.filter(author=roald_dahl)) [<Book: Charlie and the chocolate factory>]